Why Is Antarctica Guarded? 6 Key Facts

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Editorial Team

One of the planet’s most exciting locations is Antarctica. It is a country of extremes, with wintertime lows of -128.6 degrees Fahrenheit (-89.2 degrees Celsius) and winds that may gust to 200 mph (320 kilometres per hour). A substantial ice sheet covering the whole continent holds 70% of the world’s freshwater and 90% of the world’s ice. But have you ever wondered why nations invest so much time and energy in protecting this frigid region? In this post, we’ll look at six crucial Antarctica facts that help explain the continent’s importance and the rationale for its preservation.

1. Antarctica’s Location And Size

With a surface size of over 14 million square kilometres, Antarctica is the fifth-largest and southernmost continent on the planet. It is almost equivalent to Australia’s size! It is situated near the South Pole. Since it serves as a crossing point for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian seas, its location is crucial. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current runs across the continent, critical in controlling global ocean circulation patterns and temperature.

Antarctica’s seclusion has also made it an ideal location for researching the consequences of climate change. Polar parts of the Earth are more susceptible to climate change, and experts think that changes in Antarctica might significantly influence the rest of the planet. The continent’s position also makes it a great place to see the stars. The South Pole is home to several telescopes and observatories. The pure, dry air over Antarctica offers some ideal viewing conditions for astronomers.

Although far from most of the world’s population centres, Antarctica is not immune to geopolitical problems. Many nations, notably Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom have territorial claims to the continent. There has yet to be a worldwide consensus on settling these overlapping claims. Yet, the Antarctic Treaty, signed in 1959, reserves the continent as a scientific reserve and forbids military operations.

2. Antarctica’s Importance In Science

Antarctica is home to unique features, and fauna found nowhere else on Earth. It is the only continent without a native human population and has the coldest, driest, and windiest climate. Wildlife has had to adapt in novel ways due to the challenging environment. For example, emperor penguins, which can only be found in Antarctica, snuggle together to endure the cold winters. The continent is also home to the Weddell seal, which can hold its breath for up to 90 minutes, enabling it to dive to depths of almost 2,000 feet (600 meters) (600 meters).

Antarctica is a significant region for scientific study due to its distinctive characteristics. To research anything from ice core samples to marine animal behaviour, scientists from all around the globe go to Antarctica. Antarctica is also utilized for space research, with scientists sending balloons and rockets from there to examine the Earth’s atmosphere and the universe beyond. Antarctica’s severe temperatures allow us to explore how life may persist in the harshest situations, which might have profound consequences for our understanding of the origin of Earth’s life and the hunt for life on other worlds.

Antarctica is significant as a climatic indicator in addition to its scientific value. Understanding how the ice sheet is evolving is essential for anticipating and minimizing the effects that the melting of Antarctica’s ice sheet may have on sea levels across the globe. According to studies, the ice sheet in Antarctica is rapidly losing mass, making it one of the factors that contribute most quickly to sea level rise.

3. International Treaties Governing Antarctica

Antarctica is a unique continent regulated by international treaties rather than being held by any nation. These agreements are in place to guarantee that the content is utilized for peaceful purposes and that its ecology is preserved for future generations.

The Antarctic Treaty, signed in 1959 by 12 nations and now ratified by 54 countries, is the main body of law regulating Antarctica. The pact designates Antarctica as a scientific reserve, forbids military operations there, and encourages global collaboration in scientific study.

Several more international agreements regulate different parts of Antarctica in addition to the Antarctic Treaty. They consist of the following:

  • The Convention for the Antarctic Seals’ Protection: This agreement, reached in 1972, seeks to safeguard seals and their habitats in the Antarctic area.
  • The Convention on the Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities’ Regulation: This 1988 accord governs mining for minerals in Antarctica and lays forth standards for environmental preservation.
  • The Antarctic Treaty’s Protocol on Environmental Protection: The Antarctic Treaty’s environmental protection requirements are strengthened by this 1991 agreement, establishing standards for waste management, environmental impact analyses, and protected areas.

These agreements are based on protecting Antarctica’s unique ecosystem and ensuring it is used for peaceful and scientific reasons. The accords also encourage international cooperation and collaboration in scientific research, which has led to considerable improvements in our knowledge of the Earth’s climate and other crucial scientific fields. Countries from all around the globe can make sure that Antarctica stays a symbol of international collaboration and scientific growth rather than a source of conflict and competitiveness by cooperating under these accords.

4. Preservation Of Antarctica’s Environment

The necessity for environmental preservation is the fourth reason Antarctica is guarded. Antarctica has a fragile ecology that is susceptible to human influence. The pristine ecosystem of the continent is essential to the natural balance of the globe. The melting of its glaciers and ice shelves due to global warming might cause sea levels to rise and inundate coastal communities worldwide.

Antarctica’s marine and terrestrial ecosystems are distinctive and home to various animals and plants. The continent’s oceans are home to several marine species, including whales, seals, and penguins. At the same time, its landmass supports a range of flora and animals like mosses, lichens, and cold-tolerant insects. Because of the relatively essential ecosystems of the continent, even little perturbations may have profound and enduring repercussions.

Many steps have been implemented to safeguard the ecosystem in Antarctica. The Antarctic Treaty System, which people formed in 1959 to support nonviolent scientific study in Antarctica and protect the continent’s environment, is the most renowned. The treaty system lays forth rules for the preservation of the continent’s flora and wildlife as well as for the avoidance of pollution, which includes waste management and tourist management.

The Protocol also provides a foundation for preserving Antarctica’s ecology and ecosystems on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, which people approved in 1991. The convention recognizes Antarctica as a natural reserve dedicated to peace and science. It forbids any activity using mineral resources except scientific study.

5. Military Interests In Antarctica

Military interests in the area are the sixth factor that explains why Antarctica is guarded. Throughout history, several nations have conducted military operations in Antarctica. During World War II, the British developed outposts on the continent to assist military operations in the South Atlantic.

Nowadays, numerous nations retain military outposts and undertake military exercises in Antarctica. For instance, the United States has had a military presence on the continent since the 1950s, running several sites for logistical and scientific objectives. Like the United States, China and Russia have also maintained facilities in Antarctica, claiming the necessity for logistical assistance and scientific research.

Concerns about the militarization of the continent and the possibility of war have been voiced over the deployment of military personnel in Antarctica. The Antarctic Treaty System, however, forbids military operations in Antarctica, and any military presence is limited to peaceful and scientific endeavors.

6. Antarctica May Have Natural Resources

Potential natural resources that may be present on the continent are the sixth and last factor that explains why Antarctica is guarded. Coal, iron ore, gold, and silver are among the significant mineral and oil deposits that are thought to exist in Antarctica. There are further possible sources of freshwater, including icebergs and sub-glacial lakes.

Yet, using these resources is debatable, and there is a growing agreement that one should avoid exploitation. The Antarctic Treaty System forbids operations using mineral resources except for scientific research. The Protocol on Environmental Protection prohibits commercial mining in Antarctica.

The discussion around using Antarctica’s natural resources raises crucial issues about the harmony between environmental preservation and economic growth. While the help of the continent has the potential to promote economic growth and enhance the lives of millions of people, it is crucial to make sure that any exploitation is carried out sustainably and with the least possible adverse effects on the environment.


1. How Many People Live In Antarctica?

Antarctica has no permanent people, and no nation has complete control over the region. Only temporary residents, such as scientists and support workers, reside at research stations during the summer. The continent’s population fluctuates throughout the year. However, it typically ranges from a few thousand to a maximum of 5,000 during the summer. These individuals collaborate to carry out scientific studies and originate from different nations.

2. What Creatures Thrive In Antarctica?

Antarctica is home to a range of rare creatures that have adapted to the severe circumstances of the continent. Among the most well-known animals are:

  • Emperor penguins, which may grow to four feet, are the most giant. They are renowned for their distinctive reproducing methods, notably the male emperor penguin’s role in egg incubation.
  • Antarctic krill: These tiny shrimp-like crustaceans constitute the basis of the Antarctic food chain and a crucial source of food for several wildlife, such as whales, seals, and penguins.
  • Weddell seals: These seals are the southernmost type of animal and are renowned for their peculiar underwater vocalizations.
  • Albatrosses: These seabirds have the most excellent wingspan, reaching 11 feet. They are noted for their ability to fly large distances over the ocean.

3. What Is The Climate Like In Antarctica?

With some of the world’s worst weather, Antarctica is recognized for its severe climate. East Antarctica, which is often colder and drier, and West Antarctica, which is warmer and more humid, comprise the continent. The average temperature in Antarctica is minus -100°F in the winter and approximately 20°F in the summer. The region is also renowned for its ferocious winds and copious snowfall, which may result in blizzard conditions that make travel and scientific investigation challenging.


In conclusion, Antarctica is a unique and priceless continent that contributes much to the world’s ecology. There are various reasons why the continent is guarded and safeguarded by international accords, from its position and scientific importance to its environmental preservation and its natural riches. The military presence in Antarctica is also significant, and one cannot ignore the potential for conflict over resources in the future. However, despite these challenges, we must continue to protect Antarctica for future generations and ensure that the continent remains a symbol of international cooperation and scientific advancement. Together, we can defend this unspoiled and priceless continent for future generations.