Fun Facts About Latvia – An Intriguing Baltic Country

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Editorial Team

Nestled between Lithuania and Estonia in Northern Europe, Latvia is a hidden-gem that offers a unique blend of history, culture, and natural beauty. With its fascinating landscape and rich heritage, this Baltic country has something to offer everyone who sets foot on its shores.

Key Takeaways:

  • Over 50% of Latvia’s territory is covered by forests, making it one of the greenest countries in Europe.
  • Latvia is home to the widest waterfall in Europe, the Ventas Rumba, which stretches 249 meters across the Venta River.
  • Latvia has a rich history, regaining its independence in 1991 and being the last of the three Baltic States to do so.
  • The Latvian Song and Dance Festival is a grand cultural event that attracts over 40,000 participants every five years.
  • Latvia boasts the 4th oldest flag in the world, dating back to the 13th century.

Discover the wonders of Latvia, from its breathtaking landscapes to its vibrant traditions and rich cultural heritage. This Baltic gem is sure to leave a lasting impression on all who visit.

The Latvian Language

Latvian, also known as Lettish, is the official language of Latvia. With a population of just under 2 million people, Latvian is spoken primarily by the Latvian population in Latvia and secondarily by the non-Latvian population in the same country.

The Latvian language has a rich history and has undergone significant changes over time. One notable influence is the Russian influence, resulting from the immigration of Russians from the Soviet Union in the 19th and 20th centuries. This has led to the evolution of the language and the incorporation of Russian elements.

In terms of grammar, Latvian has distinct characteristics. It has two grammatical genders, and each noun is declined in seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, and vocative. This complexity adds depth to the language and allows for precise communication.

The written form of Latvian dates back centuries. The oldest known examples of written Latvian can be traced back to a 1585 catechism, highlighting the language’s historical significance and cultural heritage.

While Latvian is the mother tongue of approximately 60% of the population in Latvia, this ratio drops to under 50% in major cities. To protect the Latvian language from extinction, Latvia introduced language laws in the early 1990s.

The Latvian alphabet consists of 33 letters, and each phoneme has its own letter, making pronunciation straightforward for readers. This ensures clarity and effective communication for both native and non-native speakers.

The Latvian language has three traditional dialects: Middle, Livonianized dialect, and Upper Latvian dialects. Most Latvians can understand and communicate in all dialects to varying degrees, showcasing the linguistic diversity within the country.

Furthermore, Latvian speakers can be found beyond the borders of Latvia. The dispersion and prevalence of the language can be seen in countries like Australia, the USA, Brazil, and Canada, where Latvian communities thrive and continue to preserve their cultural heritage.

Latvian has retained many ancient Indo-European elements in vocabulary and grammar, reflecting its deep roots in history. Culturally significant words, such as “saule” (sun) in Latvian, exemplify the preservation of these elements and the language’s unique identity.

Latvian traditions emphasize politeness, gratitude, and respect. Common phrases used in social interactions include “Paldies!” (Thank you!) and “Lūdzu!” (Please). These expressions reflect the warm and courteous nature of Latvian culture.

The World’s Oldest Flag

The Latvian flag holds the prestigious title of being the oldest national flag in the world still in use. Its roots can be traced back to the medieval era, specifically mentioned in the Rhymed Chronicle of Livonia from 1180 to 1343. This makes the Latvian flag a historic symbol of the nation’s identity and heritage.

Despite facing challenges throughout history, including occupation by Germany and the Soviet Union in the 20th century, the Latvian flag persevered as a symbol of resilience and determination. Its revival came in 1990, 18 months prior to the formal recognition of Latvia as an independent state.

The design and significance of the Latvian flag was officially affirmed by a decree of the Constitutional Assembly of Latvia on 15 June 1921. The flag features a carmine red field bisected by a narrow white stripe, with the white stripe being one-fifth the width of the flag. The colors of the Latvian flag are carmine red (Pantone 19-1629 TPX/TC or 201 C) and white (Pantone 201 C), representing the nation’s values and unity.

The Latvian flag is displayed with utmost respect and reverence. It is typically raised at least 2.5 meters above the ground, and the flag-raising ceremony usually takes place at sunrise. Similarly, the flag is lowered at sunset when not displayed continuously. The Latvian flag is also proudly flown on various flag days observed in Latvia, including 25 March (communist genocide victims), 1 May (Constitution Day), 4 May (Restoration of Independence), and 18 November (Independence Day), among others.

The rich history and symbolism of the Latvian flag make it an iconic national emblem, connecting past and present generations. It serves as a reminder of Latvia’s enduring spirit and cultural heritage.

Sports and Pastimes

Latvia is a country with a passion for sports, and two sports, in particular, stand out as favorites among the Latvian population: ice hockey and basketball.

Ice hockey has long been the most popular sport in Latvia. The country boasts a rich history and tradition of ice hockey, dating back to the establishment of the Latvian Hockey Higher League in 1931. Since then, Latvia has participated in several World Championships and even competed in the 1936 Winter Olympic Games. The national ice hockey team, which has been competing internationally since Latvia regained independence in 1991, has produced remarkable talent. In fact, by 2019, twenty-four Latvian players had made it to the prestigious NHL, making the nation a force to be reckoned with in international ice hockey.

While ice hockey dominates the winter sports scene, basketball reigns supreme in the summer months. Latvia has a strong basketball tradition, and the sport has amassed a significant following among the Latvian people. The Latvian men’s basketball team, Rīgas ASK, enjoyed dominance in the Soviet League in the 1950s and early 1960s, while the women’s basketball team, TTT Riga, achieved remarkable success in the 1970s and 1980s, winning the European Champion’s Cup 18 times.

Latvian athletes have also made their mark in other disciplines. Success in events like javelin throw, hurdles, and marathons highlights the country’s diverse sporting prowess. Notable achievements include Ainārs Kovals’ silver medal in the men’s javelin throw at the 2008 Olympics, Staņislavs Olijars’ silver medal in 2002 and gold medal in the 110m hurdles at the 2006 European Athletics Championships, and Jeļena Prokopčuka’s consecutive victories at the New York City Marathon in 2005 and 2006.

In addition to the success of its athletes, Latvia is also known for its love of traditional pastimes and culinary delights. Pork, a staple in Latvian cuisine, is a favorite meat among the locals, and Riga Black Balsam, a powerful herbal liqueur with an alcohol content of 45%, is considered the national alcoholic beverage of Latvia.

It’s clear that sports play a significant role in Latvian culture, and the achievements of Latvian athletes continue to inspire future generations to excel in their chosen sports.

Females Outweigh Males

When it comes to gender distribution, Latvia stands out in the European Union. With a remarkable female to male ratio, the country boasts the highest rate of females compared to males. In fact, Latvia has 17% more women than men, marking it as a unique case in the EU.

This exceptional gender ratio can be attributed to various factors, including historical events and demographic changes. Between 2001 and 2020, Latvia and its Baltic neighbor, Lithuania, experienced a population decrease of around 20%. In contrast, the EU population as a whole grew by 4% during the same period.

In terms of specific increases in the female-to-male ratio within the EU, Portugal takes the lead. The country witnessed a significant rise from 107.2 to 111.9 women per 100 men. Conversely, Malta experienced the most significant decrease, with the female-to-male ratio dropping from 102.1 to 93.6 women per 100 men.

Latvia’s fascinating gender distribution is not the only remarkable aspect of the country. With an array of geographical features and cultural influences, this Baltic gem has plenty more to offer. Stay tuned as we continue to explore the many intriguing aspects of Latvia in the following sections.

The Birthplace of Jeans

In the late 1800s, a Latvian tailor named Jacob William Davis made a groundbreaking invention that would revolutionize the world of fashion. Davis, born on May 14, 1831, in Rīga, Russian Empire, emigrated to the United States in 1854 at the age of 23, seeking new opportunities. After a brief period in Canada, he eventually settled in San Francisco in January 1867.

It was in San Francisco that Davis’s ingenuity and craftsmanship came to the forefront. In 1870, a customer approached him with a request for a sturdy pair of working pants. This simple request sparked an idea in Davis’s mind, leading to the creation of reinforced jeans with copper rivets. The new design made the pants incredibly durable, perfect for the hardworking individuals of the era.

Recognizing the potential of his invention, Davis partnered with Levi Strauss, a well-known merchant and businessman, to file a patent application for the reinforced jeans concept in 1872. Their efforts were successful, and on May 20, 1873, they were granted US Patent No. 139,121, forever cementing the birth of modern jeans.

Davis’s innovation didn’t stop there. In the same year, he added a double orange threaded stitch design to the back pocket of the jeans, creating a unique and recognizable feature. This design was registered as a U.S. Trade Mark (No. 1,139,254), further solidifying the identity of jeans as a fashionable and practical item of clothing.

Levi Strauss established a manufacturing plant in San Francisco to produce Davis’s working pants, marking the beginning of a thriving partnership. The popularity of jeans soared, and it wasn’t long before they became an iconic symbol of American culture and style.

The impact of Davis’s invention extended beyond San Francisco and the United States. In 1873, a plaque was erected in Reno, Nevada, where Davis’s tailor shop was located, to commemorate the birthplace of jeans. Today, jeans are worn and cherished by people all over the world, a testament to their lasting influence.

Jacob William Davis passed away in 1908 in San Francisco, leaving behind a remarkable legacy. He is buried at the Hills of Eternity Memorial Park in Colma, California, a final resting place befitting his contributions to the world of fashion.

The Land of Rivers

Latvia, with its vast network of rivers, is a true haven for water enthusiasts and nature lovers. This Baltic country boasts over 12,000 rivers, offering picturesque landscapes and diverse ecosystems to explore.

One of the notable attractions among Latvia’s rivers is the magnificent Venta Waterfall, also known as Venta Rapid. Spanning over 240 meters wide, it is the widest waterfall in Europe. Located on the Venta River in Kuldīga, this mesmerizing natural wonder draws visitors from far and wide.

While Latvia has an impressive river count, only 17 of them exceed the 100-kilometer mark in length. Among the longer rivers in Latvia are the Daugava, Lielupe, Gauja, Venta, and Salaca. These rivers meander through the country, carving picturesque valleys and contributing to the vibrant biodiversity of the region.

The Daugava River, the longest in Latvia with a length of 1,020 kilometers, holds significant cultural and historical importance. It serves as an essential transportation route and has witnessed the rise and fall of civilizations throughout the centuries.

In addition to their natural beauty, Latvia’s rivers play a crucial role in the country’s hydroelectric power production. The abundant water resources, including the Daugava River, contribute to the generation of renewable energy, further emphasizing Latvia’s commitment to sustainability.

Whether you’re seeking a tranquil river cruise, an adventurous kayaking expedition, or simply wish to bask in the serenity of Latvia’s waterways, the country’s rivers offer an unforgettable experience for all nature enthusiasts.

River Count in Latvia

Here’s a breakdown of Latvia’s river count:

Total Rivers Rivers Longer than 100 km
12,000+ 17

Largest Song & Dance Festival

The Latvian Song & Dance Festival is a cornerstone of Latvia’s rich cultural heritage. Recognized by UNESCO, it is the largest amateur song and dance festival in the world. This biennial festival has been celebrated since 1873, showcasing the vibrant Latvia culture through music, dance, and camaraderie.

In 2018, the festival witnessed a staggering attendance of approximately 500,000 participants, including 40,000 performers. The festival’s repertoire combines traditional folk songs, classical choir melodies, and contemporary popular music, creating a diverse and captivating experience for all attendees.

The festival holds a distinct Latvian School Youth Song and Dance Festival, which is held in alternate five-year cycles since 1960. It provides an opportunity for young talents to showcase their skills and passion for music and dance.

The Latvian Song & Dance Festival has gained international recognition for its magnitude and cultural significance. In 2023, it will coincide with the 27th Latvian National Song and Dance Festival and the 13th Estonian Youth National Song and Dance Festival.

One of the festival’s highlights is its closing concert, which features a grand choir comprised of 16,000 singers and other participants. In 2018, this concert saw a record-breaking attendance of over 67,000 people, marking the highest turnout in the festival’s history. Moreover, the 27th edition in 2023 featured the second-highest number of participants, with 40,560 performers, surpassed only by the 2018 edition.

Song with Livonian Lyrics and UNESCO Recognition

The 2023 festival holds special significance as it marks the first inclusion of a song with Livonian lyrics in the festival’s history, highlighting the diverse linguistic heritage of Latvia. This unique addition to the repertoire further showcases the festival’s commitment to preserving and celebrating Latvia’s cultural diversity.

Through its enduring legacy, the Latvian Song & Dance Festival has played a vital role in maintaining Latvia’s statehood and identity throughout various challenges, including the Soviet occupation. It has prospered and thrived, especially during the ‘Singing Revolution’ of the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the festival became a symbol of resistance and cultural pride.

Year Attendees Performers
2018 Approximately 500,000 40,000
2023 TBD 40,560

With its grand scale, captivating performances, and deep cultural significance, the Latvian Song & Dance Festival continues to captivate audiences and represents a true testament to Latvia’s vibrant cultural heritage.

Oh Christmas Tree

Christmas traditions vary around the world, and Latvia has its own unique customs that make the holiday season truly special. One tradition that holds a significant place in Latvian Christmas celebrations is the decoration of Christmas trees. The Latvian capital, Riga, has a special claim to fame when it comes to the history of the Christmas tree.

The first written record of a decorated Christmas tree dates back to 1510 in Riga. It is believed that local men in Riga decorated a tree in the center of the town with artificial roses and danced around it. This tradition is considered the origin of the Christmas tree as we know it today. To commemorate this historic event, a bronze sculpture of a Christmas tree was erected in the spot where the first decorated tree was believed to have been set up.

However, the city of Tallinn in Estonia, contends that the first decorated Christmas tree in their city appeared even earlier, in 1441. This debate between Riga and Tallinn has garnered international attention and controversy, with historians from both Latvia and Estonia presenting their arguments and evidence to support their claims. While the debate continues, the traditions of erecting and decorating Christmas trees in both Riga and Tallinn can be traced back to mid-winter season ceremonies conducted by the Brotherhood of the Blackheads, a medieval guild of German merchants.

The tradition of decorating Christmas trees eventually spread beyond Latvia and Estonia, becoming a beloved custom in many countries around the world. Today, Riga and Tallinn still maintain their Christmas traditions and attract visitors with their magnificent Christmas markets, which often feature large trees as centerpieces.

Another interesting fact about Christmas trees is their significance in the United States. Over 15,000 Christmas tree farms employ more than 100,000 people during the holiday season. In fact, 98% of all Christmas trees in the U.S. are grown on farms. The top eight states with the highest number of Christmas tree farms are Oregon, Washington, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wisconsin, and North Carolina.

While natural Christmas trees are popular, artificial trees have also gained popularity since their origin in 19th-century Germany. In the United States, artificial trees have become a common choice for many households. Furthermore, the tradition of lighting Christmas trees can be traced back to the 17th century, when small candles were introduced on trees by Martin Luther. Electric Christmas lights were first introduced in 1882 and began to be mass-produced in 1890, revolutionizing the way we illuminate our trees.

As the debate continues, the Christmas tree remains a cherished symbol of the holiday season, bringing warmth and joy to homes around the world, including Riga, Tallinn, and beyond.


Latvian cuisine is a reflection of the country’s agricultural heritage and its location on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The traditional dishes of Latvia feature a combination of locally sourced ingredients and influences from neighboring countries. Meat, particularly pork, is a prominent feature in most main dishes, while fish is widely consumed due to Latvia’s coastal location.

Common ingredients in Latvian recipes include potatoes, wheat, barley, cabbage, onions, and eggs, which are sourced locally. These ingredients form the foundation of many traditional Latvian dishes, showcasing the country’s reliance on agricultural products.

Meals in Latvia typically consist of a light breakfast, a substantial lunch eaten between noon and 3 p.m., and sometimes a smaller snack called launags between lunch and supper. However, it is worth noting that the consumption of ready-made or frozen meals is becoming more common in Latvia as people adapt to urban and busy lifestyles.

When it comes to beverages, beer is the most popular alcoholic drink in Latvia, while the national liquor is Riga Black Balsam. The country is also known for its rich variety of dairy products, including cottage cheese, sour cream, soured milk, and different types of cheese. One notable Latvian delicacy is Rucava white butter, which has received the Protected Designation of Origin classification in the European Union.

Bread is a staple in Latvian cuisine, with rye bread being particularly popular. Other variations of bread, such as sourdough bread and fried rye bread, are also common. Latvian pastries like speķrauši (bacon-filled buns), kliņģeris (sweet pretzel), and sklandrausis (rye pie with potatoes and carrots) are enjoyed throughout the country.

Latvia has a strong tradition of mushroom foraging, with over 4,100 known mushroom species in the country, many of which are edible. Traditional Latvian recipes incorporated flavors such as garlic, onion, white mustard, caraway seeds, honey, and dill to enhance the taste of dishes.

Latvian cuisine is often described as hearty and practical, reflecting the history and culinary traditions of the country. While modern Latvian menus have been adapted to urban and busy lifestyles, traditional dishes make a comeback during holidays and key celebrations such as Easter, Christmas, Harvest Festival, Autumn Solstice, Martini Day, and Jani (Summer Solstice).

To complete the culinary experience, traditional Latvian desserts often include berries, adding a touch of sweetness to the meal. Beer is a common accompaniment to Latvian celebrations, complementing the flavors of the traditional dishes.

In recent years, Latvia has also focused on promoting healthier eating habits while still preserving traditional fat-rich foods for special occasions. This balance allows the country to embrace its culinary heritage while adapting to modern dietary preferences.

Overall, the diverse and flavorful cuisine of Latvia, with its emphasis on bread, potatoes, meats, dairy products, and fresh berries, showcases the country’s unique history and culinary traditions.

Venta Waterfall

The Venta Waterfall, also known as Venta Rapid, is a natural monument in Latvia. Located on the Venta River in Kuldīga, Latvia, it is recognized as the widest waterfall in Europe, spanning an impressive 249 meters in width. During spring floods, the waterfall expands even further, reaching up to 275 meters.

The height of the Venta Waterfall varies between 1.80 to 2.20 meters, depending on the water level in the river. Despite its relatively small height, the cascading water creates a mesmerizing spectacle that attracts tourists from all over the world.

Just 240 meters away from the waterfall stands the famous Kuldiga brick bridge. Constructed in 1874, this historic bridge is the longest operating brick bridge in Europe. Spanning 164 meters in length and 8 meters in width, it is a testament to Latvia’s architectural heritage.

Surrounded by natural beauty, the Venta Waterfall offers visitors a wooden path for walking and observation. This path runs along the river, providing stunning views of the waterfall. As one of Latvia’s top tourist attractions, it draws approximately 130,000 visitors annually.

Venta Waterfall Statistics
Established as Natural Monument 1977
Width of the Waterfall Ranges from 249 meters to 275 meters during floods
Height of the Waterfall 1.80 to 2.20 meters
Kuldiga Brick Bridge 240 meters away from the waterfall
Kuldiga Brick Bridge Length 164 meters
Kuldiga Brick Bridge Width 8 meters
Tourist Attraction Approximately 130,000 visitors annually

The Venta River and the waterfall also hold historical and cultural significance. Folk legends attribute the formation of the waterfall to stories involving sorcerers, the devil, and Livonian Knights, adding to its allure and cultural richness. Additionally, the remains of a canal built around the waterfall for shipping purposes are still visible, reflecting past infrastructure projects and the challenges faced due to the dolomite bedrock’s hardness.

The Venta River spans a total length of 346 kilometers, with 178 kilometers flowing within Latvia. It alternates between rapid sections and calm, deep sections, providing diverse experiences for visitors. The waterfall itself has a fall height of 166 meters, creating a breathtaking display of nature’s power.

The Venta River eventually flows into Veņu Lake in Lithuania before reaching the Baltic Sea. The scenic Venta Valley, from Kuldiga to Abava and the Venta and Šķērveļa valley section, are designated as complex nature reserves, showcasing the region’s commitment to preserving its natural beauty.

When visiting Latvia, be sure to experience the awe-inspiring beauty of the Venta Waterfall and immerse yourself in the stunning surroundings that make it such a remarkable natural wonder.


Latvia, a Baltic gem, is a country with rich culture, unique traditions, and breathtaking natural beauty. Its diverse ethnic groups and religious affiliations contribute to a vibrant and inclusive society. With a population of 1.8 million and a density of 29.6/km2, Latvia offers a peaceful and serene environment for its residents.

The country’s economy, with a GDP of $46.668 billion, reflects its development and progress. Latvia’s commitment to sustainability is evident through its green initiatives and dedication to preserving its natural resources.

Whether you’re exploring the stunning architecture of Riga’s Old Town, immersing yourself in the rich traditions of the Latvian Song and Dance Festival, or enjoying the therapeutic benefits of sauna culture, Latvia offers a truly unforgettable experience. It’s a country that invites you to discover its hidden treasures and immerse yourself in its unique charm.


What makes Latvia a hidden gem?

Latvia’s rich history, unique culture, and stunning natural beauty make it a captivating Baltic country that is often overlooked.

What is the official language of Latvia?

The official language of Latvia is Latvian, also known as Lettish, which has been the country’s official language since 1918.

What is the significance of the Latvian flag?

The Latvian flag is considered the oldest national flag in the world still in use. It was first documented in the Rhymed Chronicle of Livonia and has been reinstated as the national flag since 1990.

What are the popular sports in Latvia?

Ice hockey is the most popular sport in Latvia, with many players going on to play for NHL teams in the USA. Basketball is the second most popular sport, with Latvian talent also making their mark in the NBA.

Does Latvia have a unique gender ratio?

Yes, Latvia has the highest female to male ratio of any European country, with 85 men for every 100 women.

Who invented jeans?

Jacob W. Davis, a Latvian tailor, is credited with inventing jeans in 1872. He collaborated with Levi Strauss to fund and patent the design, leading to the evolution of the iconic denim garment.

How many rivers are there in Latvia?

Latvia is home to over 12,000 rivers, with only 17 of them exceeding 100 kilometers in length. One notable river feature is the Venta Waterfall, the widest waterfall in Europe.

What is the Latvian Song & Dance Festival?

The Latvian Song & Dance Festival is recognized by UNESCO as the largest amateur song and dance festival in the world. It has been held every five years since 1873 and celebrates the country’s folk, choir, and acapella singing traditions.

Where did the tradition of decorating Christmas trees originate?

The first written record of a decorated Christmas tree dates back to 1510 in Riga, Latvia. Local men decorated a tree with artificial roses, starting the tradition that has now become a global symbol of Christmas.

What is Latvian cuisine like?

Latvian cuisine is influenced by its Baltic location and neighboring countries. It features fish, meat (especially pork), potatoes, cabbage, onion, and eggs as staples.

How wide is the Venta Waterfall?

The Venta Waterfall, also known as Venta Rapid, is the widest waterfall in Europe, measuring over 240 meters in width with a drop of only 2 meters. It is located near the Kuldiga bridge, which is the oldest operational brick bridge in Europe.