Facts about Composting: Benefits & Tips

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Editorial Team

Composting is a natural and sustainable way to recycle organic matter into valuable fertilizer that enriches soil and promotes healthy plant growth. This eco-friendly practice has been utilized since ancient times, with archaeological evidence dating back to about 5,000 BC in Scotland and written records found in ancient Hindu and Chinese civilizations, as well as among Indigenous populations in the Americas.

One of the key benefits of composting is its ability to break down organic matter quickly. A hot compost pile can reach temperatures between 49-77°C (120-170°F) in just a few days, facilitating the complete breakdown of materials in as little as four weeks under optimal conditions.

Composting not only benefits the environment but also has several practical advantages. By removing contaminants from soil and water through a process called “compost bioremediation,” composting helps break down harmful toxins into harmless byproducts such as humus, carbon dioxide, water, and salts. This process is effective against a wide range of environmental contaminants, including heavy metals, chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons, VOCs, pesticides, solvents, petroleum products, and explosives. Additionally, adding compost to soil increases water retention capacity, helping to drought-proof the soil and supporting plant growth during dry periods.

The environmental impact of composting cannot be understated. If all US households composted their food waste, it would be equivalent to removing 7.8 million cars from the road, highlighting how composting significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, composting can be used as a sustainable heat source, whether it’s heating greenhouses, homes, or providing hot water.

Composting offers unique and surprising applications as well. Did you know that in certain states like Oregon, Washington, and Colorado, it is legal to compost human bodies after death, promoting eco-friendly funeral practices? Additionally, cockroaches can contribute positively to sustainable practices through a process called “blatticomposting,” converting food waste into compost. Worms also play a crucial role in the composting process, accelerating decomposition through their feeding habits and producing worm tea, a rich natural fertilizer that enhances soil fertility and promotes higher crop yields and plant growth rates.

Key Takeaways:

  • Composting is a natural and sustainable way to recycle organic matter into valuable fertilizer.
  • It has been practiced since ancient times and has various environmental and practical benefits.
  • Composting removes contaminants from soil and water through compost bioremediation.
  • Addition of compost to soil increases water retention and supports plant growth during dry periods.
  • Composting can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide sustainable heat sources.

Composting is a simple yet impactful way to contribute to a healthier planet and make a positive difference in the environment. In the following sections, we’ll explore the different types of home composting, provide tips on how to start composting, discuss the benefits of composting for the environment, delve into the history of composting, explore how composting can help tackle food waste, and highlight the role of composting in community involvement. Stay tuned!

Benefits of Composting

Composting offers a wide range of benefits that have a positive impact on both the environment and our daily lives. By diverting organic waste from landfills, composting plays a crucial role in reducing the waste stream and decreasing the amount of food waste that ends up rotting away in landfill sites. In fact, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), food scraps and yard waste constitute about 30% of materials sent to landfills.

One of the significant environmental benefits of composting is its role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Compost and mulch contribute to this reduction by sequestering carbon and diminishing dust emissions, including particulate dust emissions such as PM10 and PM2.5. By implementing compost and mulch treatments, we can also conserve energy by reducing consumption related to water transportation, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides production.

Composting also has numerous advantages when it comes to improving soil health. Compost and mulch treatments deliver nutrients to plants in a stable organic form, improving physical, biological, and chemical properties of the soil. They increase soil organic matter, thereby enhancing water holding capacity, reducing bulk density, and supporting the soil food web. Additionally, compost and mulch play a vital role in remediation and restoration efforts, including restoring riparian zones, remediating land post-fire, and breaking down contaminants in soil and water.

Furthermore, composting is highly beneficial in sustainable landscaping practices. Using compost and mulch treatments enhances plant growth, aesthetics, and habitat while reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. These treatments also help conserve water and contribute to water management systems by aiding in stormwater management, improving water quality, and reducing runoff volume and velocity.

In addition to its environmental benefits, composting can save both money and resources. By making your own compost, you can reduce the need to purchase fertilizers and soil conditioners, leading to cost savings. Composting also contributes to a circular economy practice by reusing and regenerating resources, giving back nutrients to the soil for plant growth.

In summary, the benefits of composting extend beyond waste reduction. It plays a crucial role in addressing climate change by diverting organic waste from landfills and reducing methane emissions, a potent greenhouse gas. Composting improves soil health, conserves water, enhances plant growth, and contributes to sustainable landscaping and water management systems. It is an accessible and effective way for individuals to make a positive impact on the environment while reaping the numerous advantages that composting offers.

Types of Home Composting

Home composting offers a range of methods that cater to different needs and preferences. Whether you have limited space or a large backyard, there’s a composting method that will work for you. Let’s explore the two main types of home composting: cold composting and hot composting.

Cold Composting (Passive Composting)

Cold composting is a slower, more hands-off approach to composting. It mimics the natural decomposition process by allowing organic matter to break down gradually over time. This method is ideal for those who produce a smaller amount of organic waste or don’t have as much time to dedicate to composting.

Cold composting requires minimal management and intervention. You simply add your kitchen scraps, yard waste, and other organic materials to a compost pile or bin. Over time, microorganisms will break down the materials, resulting in nutrient-rich compost. While it may take longer for the compost to fully develop – typically six months to a year – cold composting requires less effort and can still generate heat in smaller quantities, hence the name “warm composting.”

One popular technique for cold composting is bay composting. It involves constructing piles of green and brown matter in designated compost bays. These piles can be made from various materials, such as leaves, grass clippings, and vegetable scraps. Bay composting allows you to compost on a smaller scale while still generating heat and producing nutrient-rich compost.

Hot Composting (Active Composting)

Hot composting, also known as active composting, is a more intensive and faster method of composting. It requires active management and the right balance of ingredients to facilitate quicker decomposition and higher temperatures.

With hot composting, you aim to create an optimal environment for microorganisms to thrive and break down organic matter. The key factors influencing the success of hot composting are the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture level, aeration, and proper turning of the compost pile.

A well-managed hot compost pile can reach temperatures of 131°F (55°C) or higher, which helps kill pathogens and accelerates decomposition. By maintaining the right conditions and a proper carbon-nitrogen mix, you can produce finished compost in as little as 2 to 3 months.

Hot composting methods include traditional open-air composting, tumbler composting in rotating units, and even vermicomposting – composting with the help of worms. Each method has its advantages and challenges, so it’s important to choose one that suits your needs and resources.

As you explore the different types of home composting, consider factors such as the amount of organic waste you produce, the space you have available, and the level of effort you’re willing to invest. With the right method and proper management, you can turn your kitchen scraps and yard waste into nutrient-rich compost for your garden or plants.

How to Compost

Composting is a simple and eco-friendly way to recycle food scraps, garden waste, and other organic materials into nutrient-rich compost. By following the composting process and implementing proper techniques, you can create your own natural fertilizer to enrich your garden. Here are some composting tips and techniques to help you get started!

Compost Ingredients

The key to successful composting lies in the right balance of carbon-rich (browns) and nitrogen-rich (greens) materials. Browns provide carbon, which helps create structure in the compost, while greens provide nitrogen, which fuels the composting process. The ideal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio for a compost pile is 25 to 30 parts carbon for every 1 part nitrogen.

Common compost ingredients include:

  • Leaves
  • Food scraps
  • Coffee grounds
  • Grass clippings
  • Paper

Remember to avoid meat, dairy products, oily foods, and pet waste, as these can attract pests and slow down the composting process.

Composting Techniques

There are various composting techniques to choose from, depending on your preference and available space. Here are a few popular methods:

  • Cold Composting: This method requires minimal intervention. Simply pile up your compost ingredients in a designated area, and nature will take its course. While it may take longer to break down, it’s an excellent option if you have limited time or resources.
  • Hot Composting: This method involves more active management. Regular turning and monitoring of temperature and moisture levels are necessary. This technique accelerates the decomposition process, resulting in faster compost production. Layering the compost materials, similar to a lasagna, can help create optimal conditions for decomposition.

Regardless of the technique you choose, turning the compost pile every 3-4 days can significantly speed up decomposition. Compost thermometers can be used to determine the appropriate time to turn the pile for optimal results.

Carbon-Rich Materials (Browns) Nitrogen-Rich Materials (Greens)
Leaves Grass clippings
Twigs and branches Vegetable scraps
Shredded paper Fruit scraps
Cardboard Coffee grounds
Sawdust Eggshells

By following these composting tips and techniques, you can successfully recycle organic waste and contribute to a healthier environment. Creating your own compost not only reduces waste in landfills but also improves soil health and promotes the growth of healthy plants. Start composting today and reap the benefits for both your garden and the planet!

Benefits of Composting for the Environment

Composting plays a crucial role in mitigating the environmental impact of organic waste. By diverting food scraps and other compostable materials from landfills, composting helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and soil degradation.

According to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Food Waste Index, approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food is lost or wasted globally each year. This not only exacerbates hunger and food insecurity, but it also contributes to 8-10% of global greenhouse gas emissions, further accelerating climate change and putting pressure on biodiversity by exploiting land and water resources.

Fortunately, composting offers a sustainable solution to address these challenges. UNEP and the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) recommend composting as one of the best options for managing organic waste and reducing environmental impacts.

Through the process of composting, organic waste is transformed into nutrient-rich compost, which can be used to enrich soil and improve its health. Compost has numerous benefits, including its ability to hold 20 times its weight in water, facilitating better soil water retention. By increasing water-holding capacity, compost aids in water conservation and reduces the need for excessive irrigation in agriculture.

In addition to water conservation, composting significantly contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases. When organic materials decompose in landfills, they produce methane gas, a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. By diverting organic waste to the composting process, methane emissions are minimized, helping to mitigate climate change’s adverse effects.

Composting and Soil Health

Compost is a valuable soil amendment that improves soil structure, fertility, and biodiversity. When added to gardens or agricultural fields, compost promotes healthier plant growth, reduces soil erosion by increasing infiltration, and helps bind soil particles together. Moreover, compost’s organic matter nourishes beneficial microorganisms, further enhancing soil health and its ability to sustain plant life.

Local farms and gardens greatly benefit from the use of compost, as it provides a nutrient-rich soil amendment that supports plant growth and reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers and harmful chemicals.

To help individuals and communities effectively reduce food waste and support the environment, innovative solutions like the Lomi electric countertop composter have emerged. By effortlessly and efficiently transforming food scraps into nutrient-rich compost, the Lomi composter not only reduces waste but also contributes to the overall sustainability of our food systems.

History of Composting

Composting is not a modern invention but has a history that spans thousands of years. Ancient civilizations recognized the value of composting and used various methods to recycle organic waste, improve soil fertility, and promote sustainable agriculture.

The Neolithic period marked the beginning of composting practices, with people utilizing domestic waste to enhance soil fertility through composting. Manure, particularly from livestock, was one of the first materials used for composting. This practice allowed ancient communities to recycle organic matter and enrich their agricultural lands.

The Akkadian Empire, dating back to around 2,300 BC, provides the earliest written mention of composting, revealing the use of manure for agricultural purposes. Subsequent civilizations, including the Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, and nations in Andalucia, employed diverse composting techniques such as manure application and the use of human blood as a fertilizer.

The importance of compost and fertilizers is also mentioned in religious texts such as the Talmud and the Bible. These texts detail the practice of using dung and waiting for manure to decompose effectively for enhanced composting and plant growth.

Islamic Spain contributed insights into comprehensive composting and manure practices through the work of Ibn Al Waham’s Kitab al Falaha. This masterpiece introduced the use of fertilizing agents like blood to promote plant growth and improve soil fertility.

The Aztecs, known for their advanced agricultural practices, implemented a sophisticated composting system that utilized human waste. This system significantly contributed to their high agricultural productivity and food security.

Additionally, night soil collection and utilization were prevalent in civilizations like Japan and China, showcasing the effective use of human excrement for agricultural purposes.

Composting continued to play a crucial role throughout history. Even past US presidents, such as George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, engaged in composting activities, recognizing its impact on agriculture and the environment.

It wasn’t just individuals who saw the benefits of composting; entire communities embraced this practice. For example, in the 19th century, the trade and utilization of ground-up bones from graveyards and battlefields in Yorkshire raised awareness and sparked controversy, with figures like Justus Liebig expressing their opinions on the matter.

Throughout time, composting methods have evolved, and new technologies have been developed to improve the process. Today, composting is widely recognized as an effective method of sustainable waste management and soil enrichment.

Noteworthy Composting Practices Throughout History:

  • Neolithic period: Utilization of domestic waste for soil fertility
  • Akkadian Empire: First written mention of composting
  • Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, and nations in Andalucia: Diverse composting techniques and applications
  • Talmud and Bible: Importance of compost and fertilizers
  • Islamic Spain: Insights into comprehensive composting and manure practices
  • Aztecs: Advanced composting system involving human waste
  • Japan and China: Effective use of night soil for agricultural purposes
  • George Washington and Thomas Jefferson: Engagement in composting activities
  • Yorkshire: Trade and utilization of ground-up bones for agricultural use

Composting as a Solution for Food Waste

The management of food waste is a pressing issue in waste management, with a third of all food produced being discarded every year. This not only leads to economic losses but also contributes to environmental challenges. In developed countries, food loss accounts for over 40% at the retail and household levels. Meanwhile, about 24% of US landfills are occupied by food waste, according to statistics.

Composting presents itself as a sustainable solution to address the problem of food waste. By diverting food scraps from landfills and recycling them into valuable compost, composting plays a significant role in reducing food waste and its associated impacts. This process not only helps manage organic waste effectively but also offers numerous environmental benefits.

One of the key advantages of food composting is its contribution to reducing harmful greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. Decomposing food waste in landfills releases methane, a potent greenhouse gas that accelerates climate change. Composting, on the other hand, facilitates the breakdown of food waste in a controlled environment, reducing the release of methane into the atmosphere. As a result, composting helps mitigate the negative effects of global warming.

In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, composting provides the opportunity to enrich soil fertility. Compost, the end product of the composting process, is made up of three basic ingredients: browns (carbon-rich materials like dried leaves and wood), greens (nitrogen-rich materials like grass clippings and vegetable scraps), and water. This nutrient-rich compost can be used to enhance soil quality, improving moisture retention and promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and fungi. By applying compost to agricultural lands, farmers can reduce their reliance on chemical fertilizers, leading to lower greenhouse gas emissions and higher crop yields.

Not only does composting benefit the environment, but it also offers economic advantages. Businesses that implement composting programs can achieve significant cost savings in waste disposal. By diverting food scraps to composting initiatives, these businesses can reduce their waste management expenses while simultaneously improving their brand image as an eco-conscious organization.

Shapiro, a leading provider of waste management solutions, offers specialized food waste services to assist businesses in developing effective composting strategies. With their expertise, businesses can optimize their composting processes, ensuring the ideal moisture content, carbon/nitrogen ratio, oxygen supply, and temperature within the compost pile.

In conclusion, composting presents itself as a practical and sustainable solution for managing food waste. By diverting food scraps from landfills and turning them into valuable compost, composting helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions, enrich soil fertility, and achieve cost savings. As individuals and communities embrace composting, they contribute to the reduction of food waste and its associated impacts, creating a more sustainable future.

Composting and Community Involvement

Composting goes beyond individual efforts and has the potential to positively impact entire communities. Community composting programs play a crucial role in diverting organic waste from landfills and promoting sustainable waste management practices. These programs not only benefit the environment but also foster a sense of environmental responsibility among community members.

By participating in community composting initiatives, individuals can actively contribute to reducing food waste and the environmental footprint of waste disposal. Municipal composting programs provide an avenue for residents and businesses to properly dispose of their food scraps and organic materials, which would otherwise end up in landfills. This helps to address the alarming statistic that 24 percent (54 million tons) of all food in the U.S. is wasted, making it the number one material sent to landfills.

Moreover, community composting creates local jobs and economic gains shared among community members. Industrial scale compost operations can generate twice as many jobs as landfilling, offering employment opportunities and boosting the local economy. If just half of the food scraps that are currently landfilled and incinerated were diverted to community composters, over 50,000 new jobs could be created.

States like Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey have recognized the importance of composting and passed legislation around organic waste. This legislation supports the growth of community composting programs, leading to increased community involvement and participation.

However, scaling compost programs can present infrastructure barriers that need to be addressed. Proper site selection, facility design, and odor control measures are necessary to minimize odor impacts in composting facilities. Additionally, education and outreach campaigns are needed to raise awareness among community members and encourage their active participation in composting programs.

Benefits of Community Composting

Community composting contributes significantly to the circular economy and helps mitigate the release of harmful greenhouse gases like methane. Organic waste decomposing in landfills produces methane emissions that are 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. By diverting organic waste from landfills through community composting, greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly reduced.

In addition, community composting empowers individuals and encourages ongoing participation in sustainable waste management practices. It allows residents to take ownership of their waste and contribute to a cleaner environment. Furthermore, community composting can lead to reduced trash haulage in the local area, resulting in lower emissions from waste transportation.

Compost Pedallers in Austin, for example, offer an app that provides quantifiable feedback to customers on their composting efforts. This feedback fosters a sense of accomplishment and further motivates individuals to continue composting.

Overall, community composting programs have the potential to divert a significant amount of organic waste from landfills. They not only contribute to a cleaner environment but also create economic opportunities, promote community involvement, and empower individuals to make a positive impact on the planet.

Statistic Data
Number of compost operations in the United States (since 2016) Doubled
Food waste sent to landfills in the U.S. 24 percent (54 million tons)
Jobs generated by industrial-scale compost operations compared to landfilling Twice as many
New jobs that could be created by diverting half of landfilled and incinerated food scraps to community composters Over 50,000


Composting is a simple and effective way to manage organic waste while benefiting the environment. By diverting organic waste away from landfills, composting helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions and minimize the ecological and financial costs of landfilling. Moreover, composting enhances soil structure and water retention, leading to better plant growth and reduced reliance on synthetic fertilizers.

Composting also plays a crucial role in controlling pests and diseases in plants, thanks to the beneficial microorganisms found in compost. It provides a natural solution for maintaining a balanced ecosystem in gardens, reducing the need for synthetic pesticides and fostering sustainable practices. In addition, composting offers the opportunity to close the nutrient cycle by returning valuable nutrients from organic waste back to the soil, supporting sustainable agriculture and gardening.

Whether you have limited outdoor space or prefer indoor composting, there are various methods and systems available to suit your needs. Composting can be a year-round activity, providing benefits regardless of the environmental conditions. With its ease of implementation and widespread accessibility, composting empowers individuals to contribute to a more sustainable future and make a positive impact on the planet.


What is composting?

Composting is the natural process of recycling organic matter into valuable fertilizer that enriches soil and plants.

What are the benefits of composting?

Composting offers numerous benefits, including reducing the waste stream, cutting methane emissions from landfills, improving soil health, conserving water, and reducing personal food waste.

What are the types of home composting?

The two main types of home composting are cold composting (passive composting) and hot composting (active composting).

How do I compost at home?

Composting requires the right combination of compost ingredients and proper techniques. The compost ingredients should include a balance of carbon-rich (browns) and nitrogen-rich (greens) materials, and the techniques can vary based on the type of composting being done.

What are the benefits of composting for the environment?

Composting helps reduce the waste stream and methane emissions, improves soil health, and aids in water conservation.

What is the history of composting?

Composting has a long history, dating back to the Neolithic times. Ancient peoples used composting to recycle organic matter and enrich the land.

How does composting help with food waste?

Composting is a solution for food waste, as it diverts food waste from landfills and recycles it into valuable compost.

How does composting involve community participation?

Composting can be a community effort with the support of municipal composting programs, which help reduce food waste and save cities money in waste removal costs.

Why should I consider composting?

Composting is an effective and sustainable way to manage organic waste, benefiting both individuals and the environment by reducing the waste stream, conserving resources, and creating nutrient-rich compost for gardens.